Rebel Networks Inc. - Canada Cloud Hosting & Server Solutions canada géna uk

Your trusted Hosting Partner, 10 years in the Business, trusted by 1000’s of small businesses worldwide.

Trust that your data is secure in the most secure and highest rated data center in Canada (151 Front Street, Toronto).

  • Like Us
  • Follow Us
  • Link to Us
  • We do this too

カナダのグースジャケット
canada goose klær
manteau goose femme
canada goose france
гусиные картинки Exochorda racemosa        [Common Pearlbush]      Common Name List
      (plant habit, flowering)  (flowering shoots)  (flower clusters)  (flower)
      (expanding leaves)  (leaves and fruit)  (fruit, before and after seed release)
      (bark)  (info)
Copyright, Oregon State University, 1999-2014

Some options:
First letter of genus (or a Genus itself)
 Volume 1
current
  A  Abelia  Abeliophyllum  Abies  Acca  Acer  Actinidia  Adansonia  Adenium
  Adenocarpus  Aesculus  Ailanthus  Akebia  Albizia  Alnus  Amelanchier  Amorpha
  Ampelopsis  Andromeda  Aralia  Araucaria  Arbutus  Arctostaphylos  Ardisis  Aronia
  Artemisia  Asimina  Athrotaxis  Atriplex  Aucuba  Azadirachta  Azara

  B  Baccharis  Bauhinia  Berberis  Betula  Brachyglottis   Buddleia  Bumelia  Buxus

  C  Callicarpa  Callitropsis  Calluna  Calocedrus  Calycanthus   Camellia  Campsis  Caragana
  Carissa  Carnegiea  Carpenteria  Carpinus  Carya  Caryopteris  Castanea  Catalpa
  Cathaya  Ceanothus  Cedrus  Celastrus  Celtis  Cephalanthus  Cephalotaxus  Ceratonia
  Cercidiphyllum  Cercidium  Cercis  Cercocarpus  Chaenomeles  Chamaebatiaria
  Chamaecyparis  Chilopsis  Chimonanthus  Chionanthus
  ×Chitalpa  Choisya  Chrysolepis  Chrysothamnus
  Cinnamomum  Cistus  Cladrastis  Clematis  Clerodendrum  Clethra
  Coleogyne  Cornus  Corylopsis  Corylus  Cotinus  Cotoneaster  Crataegus
  Cryptomeria  Cunninghamia  ×Cupressocyparis  Cupressus  Cydonia  Cytisus

  D  Daboecia  Daphne  Daphniphyllum  Dasiphora  Davidia
  Deutzia  Diospyros  Dirca  Disanthus  Drimys

  E  Edgeworthia  Elaeagnus  Encelia  Enkianthus  Ephedra  Erica  Eriobotrya
  Escallonia  Eucalyptus  Eucommia  Euonymus  Evodia  Exochorda
 Volume 2  
F  Fagus  ×Fatshedera  Fatsia  Feijoa  Ficus  Firmiana  Fontanesia  Forsythia
  Fouquieria  Fothergilla  Fragaria  Franklinia  Fraxinus  Fremontodendron  Fuchsia

  G  Garrya  Gaultheria  Genista  Ginkgo  Gleditsia  Grevillea  Gymnocladus

  H  Hakea  Halesia  Hamamelis  Hebe  Hedera  Heptacodium
  Heteromeles  Hibiscus  Hippophae  Holodiscus  Hovenia  Hydrangea  Hypericum

  I  Iberis  Idesia  Ilex  Illicium  Itea

  J  Jasminum  Juglans  Juniperus

  K  Kalmia  Kalopanax  Kerria  Kniphofia  Koelreuteria  Kolkwitzia

  L  Laburnum  Lagerstroemia  Larix  Larrea  Laurus  Lavatera  Leucothoe  Leycesteria
  Ligustrum  Lindera  Liquidambar  Liriodendron  Lithocarpus  Lithodora
  Lonicera  Loropetalum  Luma

  M  Maackia  Maclura  Magnolia  Mahonia  Malus  Manglietia  Maytenus
  Melaleuca  Menziesia  Metasequoia  Microbiota  Microcachrys
  Mitchella  Morus  Myrica  Myrtus

  N  Nandina  Neviusia  Nothofagus  Nyssa

  O  Oemleria  Olea  Olearia  Oplopanaxa  Osmanthus  Ostrya  Oxalis  Oxydendrum
 Volume 3

P  Pachysandra  Paeonia  Parakmeria  Parrotia  Parrotiopsis
  Parthenocissus  Passiflora  Paulownia  Paxistima  Phellodendron  Philadelphus
  Phillyrea  Photinia  Physocarpus  Picea  Pieris  Pinus  Pistacia
  Pittosporum  Platanus  Platycarya  Podocarpus  Polygonum  Polystichum
  Poncirus  Populus  Potentilla  Prumnopitys  Prunus  Pseudolarix  Pseudotsuga
  Ptelea  Pterocarya  Pterostyrax  Punica  Purshia  Pyracantha  Pyrus

  Q  Quercus  Quillaja

  R  Rhamnus  Rhaphiolepis  Rhododendron  Rhodotypos  Rhus  Ribes
  Robinia  Rosa  Rosmarinus  Rubus

  S  Salix  Sambucus  Santolina  Sapindus  Sarcococca  Sassafras   Sciadopitys
  Sequoia  Sequoiadendron  Shepherdia  Sideroxylon  Simmondsia  Skimmia  Sophora
  Sorbus  Spiraea  Stachyurus  Stewartia  Styrax  Symphoricarpos  Symplocos  Syringa

  T  Taiwania  Tamarix  Taxodium  Taxus  Ternstroemia  Tetradium  Thevetia
  Thuja  Thujopsis  Tibouchina  Tilia  Toona  Trachelospermum  Trachycarpus  Tsuga

  U  Ulex  Ulmus  Umbellularia

  V  Vaccinium  Vancouveria  Viburnum  Vinca  Vitex  Vitis

  W  Waldsteinia  Washingtonia  Weigela  Widdringtonia  Wisteria  Wollemia

  X  Xanthocyparis      Y  Yucca      Z  Zanthoxylum  Zelkova  Ziziphus
  Volume 4
Herbaceous Ornamental Plants
  • CHAPTER LVII

    NIGERIAN LANGUAGES, I. — ADDO, IDZO AND BRASS

    KUKURÚKU is the current name of a tribe occupying a narrow strip of land on the right bank of the Niger opposite to Ida. Their place of residence is Ado or Edoh. Portions of the Book of Common Prayer in the Addo language, entitled: * Ebe erhunmu oghe Iko, were published by the S.P.C.K. in 1909. 59 pages, fcap. 8vo. The book contains (1) Erhunmu Owie (Morning Prayer); (2) Erhunmu Akota (Evening Prayer); (3) Katekisimu oghe Iko; (4) Katekisimu Watti; (5) Ihuan Owie, and (6) Ihuan Akota, i.e., Morning and Evening Hymns.

     

    Previous chapter

    No listings for this language by Griffiths

     

     

    Idzo (Ijo, Oshiu) is the language of the delta of the Niger river. It is spoken to the extent of one hundred miles from the mouth of the Nun branch of the Niger. Within the Idzo language field reside many of the Ibo-speaking people. This, perhaps, is also the explanation of the fact that Idzo appears to possess many characteristics in common with Ibo.
     
     

    One of the dialects of Idzo is the Brass dialect. Brass is a river, town and district of Southern Nigeria. Brass town lies at the mouth of the river. Its most conspicuous building is a fine church, the gift of a native chief. The capital of the Brass tribe is Nimbe, thirty miles up the river. The river is said to have received its English name from the brass rods and other brass utensils imported by the early traders in exchange for palm-oil and slaves[1]. The Brass natives, of the pure negro type, have always been noted for their savage character.
     

    Griffiths calls this the Brass dialect of the Ijo language

    The Brass language is called by the natives Nimbé, after their capital. Cust and others considered it only a dialect of Idzo, which latter, as just mentioned, appears to have many characteristics in common with lbo.

    The mission of the Brass river was commenced in 1867 by Bishop Crowther. Soon King Ockiya, of Brass, and several of his chiefs renounced their idols and were baptized after proper instruction. His son, the Catechist Daniel Ockiya, translated the gospels of Mark, John, Matthew and Luke, which were published separately in 1903 by the British and Foreign Bible Society. The mission, begun by Crowther, had many trials, relapses and other difficulties to overcome. A beginning of translating a portion of the Liturgy was made in 1886, when the Lower Niger Mission Press at Brass published: The Church Catechism, Brass dialect, 7 pages, 16mo. A year later the same press issued: Idzo Common Prayer; Brass dialect. With Idzo hymns, 57 pages, fcap. 8vo.
     

    [1] So the Encyclopædia Britannica, eleventh edition, Vol. IV, p. 463. A reviewer in the London Athenæum, March 18, 1911, p. 302, col. 3, on the other hand, says, “The name is probably a derivation from braço, derived from the arm of the river” Again, Mr. Adebiji Topowa, a native of the district, says this name was given to the country “presumably by the Portuguese”; but the etymology which he suggests from the word Ba-Ra-Sin, meaning in the Brass language “Hands off,” “Let go,” as used in bargaining (Journal of the African Society, October, 1907) is very improbable.

    Griffiths 60:1

    Toward the latter years white missionaries, the Rev. Henry Proctor, C.M.S. missionary at Brass from 1898 to 1908, and Mr. Craven Wilson, a lay missionary of considerable experience, have done good and efficient work, which encouraged the S.P.C.K. to have a translation of the Liturgy made into the Brass language. It was published in 1910, entitled: * Kare Dirimi Nembe bebe gho, 496 pages, fcap. 8vo. It begins with the Morning Prayer, and ends with the Commination Service (p. 326, end). The Psalter is printed on pp. 327 to 496. The book contains the Collects, Epistles and Gospels, and most of the Occasional Offices. In this translation even the sub-headings, left untranslated in many other versions put out by the S.P.C.K., are translated. As a complementary volume the S.P.C.K. issued a Hymn Book for the use of Brass congregations. fcap. 8vo.

     


    Griffiths 60:2

    CHAPTER LVIII

    NIGERIAN LANGUAGES, II — THE GREBO TRANSLATIONS OF THE AMERICAN MISSION

     

     

    KRUMEN[1] are a negro people of the west coast of Africa. They dwell in villages scattered along the coast of Liberia from below Monrovia nearly to Cape Palmas. The name has been wrongly derived from the English word “crew,” with reference to the fact that Krumen were the first West African people to take service in European vessels. The correct derivation is probably from Kraoh, the primitive name of one of their most powerful tribes. Under “Krumen” are now grouped many kindred tribes, the Grebo (Krebo, Glebo, G’debo, Gedebo), the Basa, the Nitu and others, who collectively number some 40,000. The Krumen are traditionally from the interior, but have long been noted as skilful seamen and daring fishermen. They are honest,. brave and passionately fond of freedom. They will starve and drown themselves to escape capture, and have never trafficked in slaves. As a race they are singularly intelligent, and exhibit their enterprise in numerous settlements along the coast. Sierra Leone, Grand Bassa and Monrovia all have their Kru towns.

    Bleek classified the Krumen with the Mandingo family. and in this he is followed by R. G. Latham. Koelle, on the other hand, who published a Kru grammar in 1854, considers the language as quite distinct from Mandingo. The first missionary to the Krumen sent by the Protestant Episcopal Church was the Rev. Thomas S. Savage, M.D., who arrived in December, 1836. He was the first of eight medical men sent by the Board of Missions of the American Church to Liberia at various times. Savage returned to America in 1846, and died there December, 1880. In 1837 came the Rev. Launcelot B. Miner (died 1843) and the Rev. John Payne (1815-74). The latter became, in 1851, the first bishop of Cape Palmas and parts adjacent. His missionary career of thirty-four years was marked by devoted and successful work[2]. After an arduous service of nearly twenty years as bishop on the coast of Western Africa, Dr. Payne returned to the United States in 1871 completely broken in health and strength. He sent his resignation to the House of Bishops, which accepted it in October of the same year. He died October 23, 1874. Bishop Payne translated into Grebo the Acts of the Apostles, the Gospel according to St. Luke and the Book of Genesis before. he was consecrated bishop. Toward the end of his episcopate he had printed in 1867, at Philadelphia (King & Baird), a Grebo translation of large portions of the Prayer Book of the American Church, entitled:
     

     

    [1] Also called Kroomen, Krooboys, Krus, or Croos.

    [2] E. C. Parsons, Christus liberator, p. 131.
     

        

     

     

     

    Bede Kinede | ko | Sacramente a kpone he; | nĕ | Čūe a kpone be ko o Bede te | He, yedi, | tene | Protestante Episcopal Čue | kre | Mlenyo a Bli-bro ke | nu e poe. |

    277 pages, 12mo. Printed in long lines. Page 1, bastard title, reverse blank; p. 3, title-page, reverse blank. Table of contents, pp. 5, 6; preface, p. 7; p. 8 blank. The preliminary material, pp. 9-18, is in English, as are also the running head-lines, the rubrics and directions throughout the volume. In the preface the bishop states that:

    “The Morning and Evening Prayer, the Litany, the Order for the Administration of the Lord’s Supper or Holy Communion, the Administration of Baptism to such as are of Riper Years, and the Order of Confirmation, have been translated and used wholly or partially for many years, at the Stations and in the Churches of the Protestant Episcopal Church at Cape Palmas and parts adjacent. . . . Every thing of importance, in the present condition of the Native Congregations, is included, except the Psalter, which, it is hoped, will appear, ere long, in a separate volume, with a collection of Psalms and Hymns in Metre.”

    Added to this Liturgy is: Grebo Worade — Grebo Hymns. For the use of the Protestant Episcopal Mission at Cape Palmas and parts adjacent, West Africa. Philadelphia . . . 1867. 48 pages, containing 54 hymns.

    In 1873, C. Schultze, at Basle, printed for the Protestant Episcopal Mission at Cape Palmas and parts adjacent:
     

    Griffiths 44:1

    Pôwa Badenwi | ko Sakramente hē | nẽ Neko Nunude bê yedi | ă Kēnede | tene | Protestante Episkopa Daokpã | n’onede | Amerika ă Nmonmoã Dible | nunao e tutue. | The Book of Common Prayer, etc. . . . according to the use of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America. Translated into the Kru Language (G’debo Dialect).

    227 pages, 8vo. Printed in long lines. Preliminary matter, text, rubrics, etc., are all in Grebo. The Psalter is printed separately .

    The translation was made by Johann Gottlieb Auer, the second missionary bishop of the American Church at Cape Palmas. The translator prints on the back of the title-page an explanation as to the contents of the present book. The preface, pp. 3-5, is printed in English. The translation omits the Epistles and Gospels. The table of contents is printed on p. 227. Part II of this edition contains: Neko, Wodade ă Kēnede | kěde | Gědėbo nwi | kudi. | The Book of Psalms in G’debo, translated from the Hebrew. . . Basel, 1872. 209, (2) pages. Printed in long lines. Back of the title-page is a page of “Orthography”; p. 210 is blank. The last (2) pages contain a list of “Errata.” Part III contains: Wodade | keo | Neko Kae ko Nable hẽ mo. | Hymns for the Church and Family in the Kru language. | . . . Basel, 1873, xxx, 240 pages. Two columns to the page. Title, reverse blank; introduction (in English), pp. iii-viii, by Bishop Auer; ix-xii, table of contents in Grebo; xiii-xxx, index (in English), giving also the name of the original writer and of the translator of each hymn. Most of the 366 hymns were translated by Auer; some by Bishop Payne ; the Rev. Samuel W. Seton, a native clergyman; Charles Morgan, a. native catechist, and B. B. Wisner, likewise a native catechist.

    Auer was a native of Würtemberg, born of Lutheran parents on November 18, 1832. He trained at the Mission School, Basle, Switzerland, for the work to which he devoted his whole life. He went to West Africa as an agent of the German Lutheran Mission to Ashanti. In 1862 he connected himself with the Cape Palmas Mission of the Church in the United States, and was ordained deacon and priest by Bishop Payne. He was consecrated to the missionary episcopate in 1873 and died at Cavalla, Africa, the following year, February 16, 1874.

    “The page which tells of the short life of the second bishop, John Gottlieb Auer, reads in its devotion like an echo of Livingstone’s, as we follow him on his litter in his last illness, baptizing and confirming the natives who flocked about him.” — Leaflet, Church Missions Publication Society, Hartford, Conn.[3].

     


     

    Griffiths 44:2
    [3] On the history of this African Mission, see especially: An Historical Sketch of the African Mission of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States, by the Right Rev. Samuel David Ferguson, Bishop of Cape Palmas and parts adjacent [since 1885]; 77 pp. ; plates and portraits; 8vo. — Also, Bishop Ferguson’s Twentieth Annual Report, 1905; Board of Missions, U. S. of America, 1906, 33 pp., 12mo.

    CHAPTER LIX

    NIGERIAN LANGUAGES, III — HAUSA AND IBO TRANSLATIONS

    THE Hausa are a people inhabiting about half a million square miles in the Western and Central Soudan, from the river Niger in the west to Bornu in the east. They number some 5,000,000 people, and constitute the most important nation of the Central Soudan. They are undoubtedly nigritic, though in places with a strong crossing of Fula and Arab blood. Morally and intellectually they are far superior to the typical negro. The Hausa language has a wider range over Africa north of the Equator, south of Barbary and west of the Valley of the Nile, than any other tongue. It is spoken by about 12,000,000 of the inhabitants of Northern Nigeria and the Central Soudan. It is a rich, sonorous language, with a vocabulary containing perhaps 10,000 words. It appears to be a link between the Hamitic and the Negro language groups. Even at the present day there are many links existing which show the original connection between the Arab and the Negro. The language has been reduced to writing by the natives themselves for at least a century, and probably very much longer. Of African languages this is the only case on record. The character used is a modified Arabic. The language is the great lingua franca of the Soudan. “It would carry you,” said Bishop Crowther, “from Lagos to Tunis or Tripoli.” It is the handmaid of commerce, as the Fula is that of conquest, and the Arabic that of religion (Cust).

    Until the last decades of the nineteenth century no important attempt had been made to introduce Christianity; but the fact that the people are fond of reading, and that native schools exist in all parts of the country, should greatly facilitate the work of Christian missions. It was during the seventies of last century that the C.M.S. proposed to make resolute efforts to carry the Gospel to the powerful Mohammedan nations — the Mandingoes, Fulas and Hausas — both from Sierra Leone and up the Niger.

    The work of the Soudan and Upper Niger Mission was done chiefly under the leadership of John Alfred Robinson (1859-1891), formerly a scholar (since 1879) of Christ College, Cambridge (B.A., 1881; M.A., 1884), and of Graham Wilmot Brooke. They began their active work as C.M.S. missionaries in that region about 1886. Naturally the work among the Moslems of the Soudan was quite different from work among the pagans of the Lower Niger. The two missionaries proved to be the right men for the right place. At Lokoja, the base of their work, was a confluence of a number of languages spoken in that region. Nupe, Hausa, Yoruba, etc., could be heard on its streets day by day. Unfortunately for the rapid progress of the mission, both leaders died in short succession, the one at Lokoja, June 25,1891, the other in 1892.

    Robinson’s brother, the Rev. Charles Henry Robinson, of Trinity College, Cambridge, made an important journey in 1894 and 1895 through Hausaland, under the auspices of the Hausa Association, founded in 1893 in memory of his brother; and his book, Hausaland, or fifteen hundred miles through the Central Soudan (London, 1896), is one of the best authorities regarding that interesting people.

    Two years later the victory of the English over the Mohammedan Fulas at Bida and the capture of that city, together with the consequent annexation of the territory under British control, opened the land also for further mission work. But as yet not much progress has been made and Hausaland is practically still unoccupied. Canon Robinson, however, has done considerable literary work in Hausa philology, re-editing Schön’s Magana Hausa (Hausa stories and fables) and compiling, with the assistance of William Henry Brooks, a Hausa-English Dictionary in two volumes. Cambridge, 1899, 1900.

    Portions of the Book of Common Prayer and Hymns in the Hausa language, entitled: *Addu’a ta Safiya, were published by the S.P.C.K. in 1908; 48 pages, fcap. 8vo. The Prayer Book proper occupies pp. 3-13. Pp. 14-34 contain selected Psalms (Zabura); 35, 36 Dokoki goma; 37-48 a selection of hymns (Wakoki).

    >

    RECENT POST

    • Rebel Network Expands at 151 Front Street 10 July 2015 Hosting Talk
    • Rebel Networks Supports Minor youth Sports 2 July 2015 Press News
    • Does your site need a dedicated IP? 3 November 2014 Hosting Talk
    • Dishan Francis, named Microsoft MVP! 2 October 2014 Press News
    • Dropbox or SugarSYNC Alternative – Introducing"xMWqM">2 August 2014 SyncBLAZE
    canada goose jacka> 100% Canada Hosting - We keep all your data on Canada soil.

    カナダのグースジャケット
    canada goose klær
    manteau goose femme
    canada goose france
    гусиные картинки Exochorda racemosa        [Common Pearlbush]      Common Name List
          (plant habit, flowering)  (flowering shoots)  (flower clusters)  (flower)
          (expanding leaves)  (leaves and fruit)  (fruit, before and after seed release)
          (bark)  (info)
    Copyright, Oregon State University, 1999-2014

    Some options:
    First letter of genus (or a Genus itself)
     Volume 1
    current
      A  Abelia  Abeliophyllum  Abies  Acca  Acer  Actinidia  Adansonia  Adenium
      Adenocarpus  Aesculus  Ailanthus  Akebia  Albizia  Alnus  Amelanchier  Amorpha
      Ampelopsis  Andromeda  Aralia  Araucaria  Arbutus  Arctostaphylos  Ardisis  Aronia
      Artemisia  Asimina  Athrotaxis  Atriplex  Aucuba  Azadirachta  Azara

      B  Baccharis  Bauhinia  Berberis  Betula  Brachyglottis   Buddleia  Bumelia  Buxus

      C  Callicarpa  Callitropsis  Calluna  Calocedrus  Calycanthus   Camellia  Campsis  Caragana
      Carissa  Carnegiea  Carpenteria  Carpinus  Carya  Caryopteris  Castanea  Catalpa
      Cathaya  Ceanothus  Cedrus  Celastrus  Celtis  Cephalanthus  Cephalotaxus  Ceratonia
      Cercidiphyllum  Cercidium  Cercis  Cercocarpus  Chaenomeles  Chamaebatiaria
      Chamaecyparis  Chilopsis  Chimonanthus  Chionanthus
      ×Chitalpa  Choisya  Chrysolepis  Chrysothamnus
      Cinnamomum  Cistus  Cladrastis  Clematis  Clerodendrum  Clethra
      Coleogyne  Cornus  Corylopsis  Corylus  Cotinus  Cotoneaster  Crataegus
      Cryptomeria  Cunninghamia  ×Cupressocyparis  Cupressus  Cydonia  Cytisus

      D  Daboecia  Daphne  Daphniphyllum  Dasiphora  Davidia
      Deutzia  Diospyros  Dirca  Disanthus  Drimys

      E  Edgeworthia  Elaeagnus  Encelia  Enkianthus  Ephedra  Erica  Eriobotrya
      Escallonia  Eucalyptus  Eucommia  Euonymus  Evodia  Exochorda
     Volume 2  
    F  Fagus  ×Fatshedera  Fatsia  Feijoa  Ficus  Firmiana  Fontanesia  Forsythia
      Fouquieria  Fothergilla  Fragaria  Franklinia  Fraxinus  Fremontodendron  Fuchsia

      G  Garrya  Gaultheria  Genista  Ginkgo  Gleditsia  Grevillea  Gymnocladus

      H  Hakea  Halesia  Hamamelis  Hebe  Hedera