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TABELA DE MEDIDAS PADRÃO
MEDIDAS PP P M G GG
BUSTO 88cm 92cm 96cm 102cm 108cm
CINTURA 68cm 72cm 76cm 82cm 88cm
QUADRIL 96cm 100cm 104cm 110cm 116cm
Vestido curto: 45cm / Vestido longo: 120cm / Vestido midi: 75cm
           
TABELA DE NUMERAÇÃO INTERNACIONAL EM CENTÍMETROS - BRASIL
22,3 cm 23,0 cm 23,7 cm 24,3 cm 25,0 cm 25,7 cm
33 34 35 36 37 38

COMO MEDIR:

BUSTO: Com uma fita métrica contorne o busto passando pela altura do seios. A fita deve estar folgada.
CINTURA: Envolva a parte mais fina da cintura com a fita métrica e meça.
QUADRIL: Contorne a maior parte do quadril com a fita métrica e meça.

COMPRIMENTO DOS MODELOS
Para medir o comprimento dos vestidos posicione a fita métrica na cintura e arraste até o comprimento da medida indicada.

* Esta é uma medida de unidade padrão, entretanto pode sofrer variações de acordo com o modelo.



Knowledge Center

Women in the Workforce: China

Population

Men Outnumber Women in World's Most Populated Nation1

China’s total population is 1,373,541,278, which makes it the world’s most populous country.2

  • Women are 48.6% of China’s population.3
  • A 2012 report found that China’s gender imbalance has contributed to slowed population and labor force growth, increased proportions of single men, trafficking of women, and rising crime rates.4
     
China's Aging Population Is on the Rise5

China’s fertility rate (1.6 births per woman) is falling below replacement level, putting China at risk of becoming an ageing society.6

  • In 2016, 10.4% of China’s population was over 65 years old.7 The elderly (65+) population is expected to rise to about 17.1% by 2030 and 26.3% by 2050, a projected increase of 15.9% over 34 years.8

Almost half (48%) of China’s population is between 25 and 54 years old.9

The Elderly Rights and Security Law states that the care for elderly parents is the responsibility of adult children, even though many employers are limiting the flexibility of caregivers.10

  • China’s former “one-child policy” led married couples to maintain the sole care of four elderly parents. This care became more likely the responsibility of women than of men.11

  • As of January 1, 2016, China's "two-child policy" allows all married couples to have two children.12
     

Marriage and Family Are Undergoing Cultural Changes13

Women are marrying later, with the mean average for women at 24 years old in 2013, a slight increase from 23 years old in 2000.14

  • A 2017 study revealed that 40.1% of working women in China were hesitant to have children.15
    • Over half (63.4%) of women worried that having children would significantly impact their career development.16

Many advantaged women and less-advantaged men now remain single due to traditional beliefs that men should be more educated than their wives.17

  • Almost 50% of highly educated women (with post-secondary education) were unmarried in 2010, 10.1% higher than the percentage of unmarried and highly educated men.18

The divorce rate has been on the rise, from 1.1% in 2003 to 3.0% in 2016 (an increase of over 170%).19
 

The Majority of Mothers in China Work20

72% of mothers between 25 and 34 years of age with children under the age of six were employed in 2010.21

  • A barrier for working women created by China’s economic reforms is the reduction of government, public, and employer childcare options.22


Education

More Women Are College Educated Than Before23

Representation of women in higher education has steadily increased in the past decade.24

  • In 2014, over half (51.1%) of enrolled students in tertiary (post-secondary) education25 were women.26

  • Women represented just over half (51.1%) of tertiary graduates in 2014.27


Labor Force

In 2016, the majority (70.8%) of China’s population aged 15 years and older participated in the labor force.28

  • 63.3% of women were in the labor force compared to 77.9% of men.29
     

A Gender Pay Gap Persists in China’s Labor Force30

Women earn on average 35% less than men for doing similar work, ranking in the bottom third of the Global Gender Gap Index (ranked 99th out of 144 countries).31

  • Women’s average annual income lags behind men’s. In 2010, women earned just over two-thirds (67.3%) of men’s income in urban areas, and just over half (56%) of men’s income in rural areas.32
     
Working Norms and Policies Disadvantage Women33

Maternity leave is at least 98 days,34 and 100% of wages for maternity leave are paid by the employer and government combined.35

  • Employers sometimes use the long maternity leave to deny women employment. The United Nations Human Rights Council reports discrimination practices in China based on maternity, with employers choosing to hire only women who already have children, denying pregnant women statutory leave, or dismissing women during pregnancy.36

In a 2010 survey, more than 72% of women stated they were not hired or promoted due to gender discrimination.37

  • Over 75% believed they were “being dismissed” due to marriage or childbirth.38

Mandatory retirement ages in China differ between women and men.39

  • Women in blue-collar occupations (e.g., factory workers) are often required to retire at age 50, and women in white-collar occupations (e.g., professionals, managers) at age 55. Special categories of women (e.g., college professor) can work until age 60.40

  • The mandatory retirement age for urban employed men is 60.41

China’s early retirement age for women contributes to missed career development and advancement opportunities, reduced pensions, and fewer social security benefits for female retirees.42


Leadership

Despite High Labor Force Participation, There Are Few Women in Leadership Roles43

In 2016, women were just 17% of all legislators, senior officials, and managers in China.44

  • Only 17.5% of firms in China have women as top managers.45

In 2015, women represented 9.2% of boards46 and 22% of CFOs47 of companies in China.

  • In 2013, only 3.2% of CEOs of Chinese companies were women.48
     
Women Have Low Representation in Political Offices49

Less than one-quarter (24.2%) of all positions in China’s single-house parliament are held by women, placing it 72nd out of 193 countries.50

  • 12% of ministerial positions in China’s government were held by women in 2016.51

  • Out of the past 50 years, there were only four with a female head of state.52

No woman has ever been among the nine members of China’s top level of decision-making, the Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party.53


Additional Resources

Catalyst, Expanding Work-Life Perspectives: Talent Management in China (2012).

Catalyst, Quick Take: Statistical Overview of Women in the Workforce.

Human Rights Watch, "China—Events of 2016," World Report 2017 (2017).

Qingwen Xu and Wing Kwan Anselm Lam, China Public Policy (The Sloan Center on Aging & Work, January 2010).

US Congressional-Executive Commission on China, “Status of Women,” 2016 Annual Report (2016).

 

How to cite this product: Catalyst, Quick Take: Women in the Workforce: China (August 31, 2017).

  • 1. CIA, "China, People and Society," The World Factbook (2017).
  • 2. CIA, "Country Comparison: Population," The World Factbook (2017).
  • 3. CIA, "China, People and Society," The World Factbook (2017).
  • 4. Jane Golley and Rod Tyers, “China’s Gender Imbalance and Its Economic Performance,” The China Story (Australian Centre on China in the World, 2012).
  • 5. Kenneth Rapoza, “China’s Aging Population Becoming More of a Problem,” Forbes, February 21, 2017.
  • 6. CIA, “China, People and Society,” The World Factbook (2017); National Bureau of Statistics in China, Department of Social, Science and Technology, and Cultural Statistics, Women and Men in China – Facts and Figures 2012 (2014): p. 13.
  • 7. CIA, “China, People and Society,” The World Factbook (2017).
  • 8. United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, “Percentage of Population by Broad Age Group, Both Sexes (Per 100 Total Population), Age 65+,” World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision (2017).
  • 9. CIA, “China, People and Society,” The World Factbook (2017).
  • 10. Sarah Cook and Xiao-yuan Dong, “Harsh Choices: Chinese Women’s Paid Work and Unpaid Care Responsibilities under Economic Reform,” Development and Change, vol. 42, no. 4 (2011): p. 947–965.
  • 11. Lanyan Chen and Hilary Standing, “Gender Equity in Transitional China’s Healthcare Policy Reforms,” Feminist Economics, vol. 13, no. 3-4 (2007): p. 189-212.
  • 12. Law Library of Congress, “China: Two Child Policy Becomes Law,” Global Legal Monitor (January 8, 2016).
  • 13. National Bureau of Statistics in China, Department of Social, Science and Technology, and Cultural Statistics, Women and Men in China – Facts and Figures 2012 (2014): p. 20.
  • 14. United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, “Singulate Mean Age at Marriage (SMAM),” World Marriage Data 2015 (2015).
  • 15. “Zhaopin Report Found China’s Working Women Less Keen on Childbearing,” Zhaopin Limited press release, May 11, 2017.
  • 16. “Zhaopin Report Found China’s Working Women Less Keen on Childbearing,” Zhaopin Limited press release, May 11, 2017.
  • 17. National Bureau of Statistics in China, Department of Social, Science and Technology, and Cultural Statistics, Women and Men in China – Facts and Figures 2012 (2014): p. 20.
  • 18. National Bureau of Statistics in China, Department of Social, Science and Technology, and Cultural Statistics, Women and Men in China – Facts and Figures 2012 (2014): p. 20.
  • 19. Ministry of Civil Affairs of the People’s Republic of China, “Table 14: Marriage and Divorce,” 2010 Social Services Development Statistics Bulletin (June 16, 2011); Ministry of Civil Affairs of the People’s Republic of China, “Table 14: Marriage Rate and Divorce Rate,” 2016 Social Services Development Statistics Bulletin (August 3, 2017).
  • 20. All-China Women’s Federation and National Bureau of Statistics in China, Report on Major Results of the Third Wave Survey on The Social Status of Women in China (October 21, 2011).
  • 21. All-China Women’s Federation and National Bureau of Statistics in China, Report on Major Results of the Third Wave Survey on The Social Status of Women in China (October 21, 2011).
  • 22. Sarah Cook and Xiao-yuan Dong, “Harsh Choices: Chinese Women’s Paid Work and Unpaid Care Responsibilities under Economic Reform,” Development and Change, vol. 42, no. 4 (2011): p. 947–965.
  • 23. National Bureau of Statistics in China, Department of Social, Science and Technology, and Cultural Statistics, Women and Men in China – Facts and Figures 2012 (2014): p. 70.
  • 24. The World Bank, “Percentage of Students in Tertiary Education Who Are Female, China, 2004-2014,” The World Bank Databank (2017); World Bank, “Percentage of Graduates from Tertiary Education Who Are Female, China, 2004–2014,” The World Bank Databank (2017).
  • 25. Tertiary education describes “all post-secondary education, including but not limited to universities. In recent years, a diverse and growing set of public and private tertiary institutions in every country—colleges, technical training institutes, community colleges, nursing schools, research laboratories, centers of excellence, distance learning centers, and many more—form a network of institutions that prepare students for application of knowledge at an advanced level.” The World Bank, “Higher Education: Context,” The World Bank Topics A-Z: Tertiary Education (December 21, 2015).
  • 26. The World Bank, “Percentage of Students in Tertiary Education Who Are Female, China, 2014,” The World Bank Databank (2017).
  • 27. The World Bank, “Percentage of Graduates from Tertiary Education Who Are Female, China, 2014,” The World Bank Databank (2017).
  • 28. The World Bank, “Labor Force Participation Rate, Total (% of Total Population Ages 15+) (Modeled ILO Estimate), China, 2016,” The World Bank Databank (2017).
  • 29. The World Bank, “Labor Force Participation Rate, Female (% of Female Population Ages 15+) (Modeled ILO Estimate), China, 2016,” The World Bank Databank (2017); The World Bank, “Labor Force Participation Rate, Male (% of Male Population Ages 15+) (Modeled ILO Estimate), China, 2016,” The World Bank Databank (2017).
  • 30. Sukti Dasgupta, Makiko Matsumoto, and Cuntao Xia, "Women in the Labour Market in China," ILO Asia-Pacific Working Paper Series (May 2015): p. 1.
  • 31. The World Economic Forum, The Global Gender Gap Report 2016 (2016): p. 142.
  • 32. All-China Women’s Federation and National Bureau of Statistics in China, Report on Major Results of the Third Wave Survey on The Social Status of Women in China, (October 21, 2011).
  • 33. United Nations Human Rights Council, Report of the Working Group on the Issue of Discrimination Against Women in Law and Practice – Mission to China (June 12, 2014): p. 9.
  • 34. Law Info China, “Special Rules on the Labor Protection of Female Employees, Order No. 619 of the State Council,” Laws & Regulations (April 28, 2012).
  • 35. The World Economic Forum, The Global Gender Gap Report 2016 (2016): p. 143.
  • 36. United Nations Human Rights Council, Report of the Working Group on the Issue of Discrimination Against Women in Law and Practice – Mission to China (June 12, 2014): p. 10.
  • 37. Yang Hui, “Urban Women’s Gender Discrimination Issues in Employment,” Women of China (September 6, 2012).
  • 38. Yang Hui, “Urban Women’s Gender Discrimination Issues in Employment,” Women of China (September 6, 2012).
  • 39. John Giles, Dewen Wang, and Wei Cai, “The Labor Supply and Retirement Behavior of China’s Older Workers and Elderly in Comparative Perspective,” The World Bank, Policy Research Working Paper: 5853 (October 2011): p. 3.
  • 40. John Giles, Dewen Wang, and Wei Cai, “The Labor Supply and Retirement Behavior of China’s Older Workers and Elderly in Comparative Perspective,” The World Bank, Policy Research Working Paper: 5853 (October 2011): p. 4.
  • 41. John Giles, Dewen Wang, and Wei Cai, “The Labor Supply and Retirement Behavior of China’s Older Workers and Elderly in Comparative Perspective,” The World Bank, Policy Research Working Paper: 5853 (October 2011): p. 4.
  • 42. Sukti Dasgupta, Makiko Matsumoto, and Cuntao Xia, "Women in the Labour Market in China," ILO Asia-Pacific Working Paper Series (May 2015): p. 26.
  • 43. Jennifer Zeng and Michael Thorneman, Advancing Gender Parity in China: Solutions to Help Women’s Ambitions Overcome the Obstacles (Bain & Company, November 26, 2014): p. 3.
  • 44. The World Economic Forum, The Global Gender Gap Report 2016 (2016): p. 142.
  • 45. The World Economic Forum, The Global Gender Gap Report 2016 (2016): p. 141.
  • 46. Credit Suisse Research Institute, “Table 1: Percentage of Women on Boards by Country, China,” The CS Gender 3000: The Reward for Change (2016): p. 8.
  • 47. Credit Suisse Research Institute, The CS Gender 3000: The Reward for Change (2016): p. 16.
  • 48. Credit Suisse Research Institute, “Table 9: Women in Senior Management Positions by Function and by Country, China,” The CS Gender 3000: Women in Senior Management (2014): p. 14.
  • 49. National Bureau of Statistics in China, Department of Social, Science and Technology, and Cultural Statistics, Women and Men in China – Facts and Figures 2012 (2014): p. 102.
  • 50. Inter-Parliamentary Union, “World Classification, China," Women in National Parliaments (July 1, 2017).
  • 51. The World Economic Forum, The Global Gender Gap Report 2016 (2016): p. 142.
  • 52. The World Economic Forum, The Global Gender Gap Report 2016 (2016): p. 143.
  • 53. Jude Howell, “Where Are All the Women in China’s Political System?,” East Asia Forum (October 15, 2014).




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Knowledge Center

Women in the Workforce: China

Population

Men Outnumber Women in World's Most Populated Nation1

China’s total population is 1,373,541,278, which makes it the world’s most populous country.2

  • Women are 48.6% of China’s population.3
  • A 2012 report found that China’s gender imbalance has contributed to slowed population and labor force growth, increased proportions of single men, trafficking of women, and rising crime rates.4
     
China's Aging Population Is on the Rise5

China’s fertility rate (1.6 births per woman) is falling below replacement level, putting China at risk of becoming an ageing society.6

  • In 2016, 10.4% of China’s population was over 65 years old.7 The elderly (65+) population is expected to rise to about 17.1% by 2030 and 26.3% by 2050, a projected increase of 15.9% over 34 years.8

Almost half (48%) of China’s population is between 25 and 54 years old.9

The Elderly Rights and Security Law states that the care for elderly parents is the responsibility of adult children, even though many employers are limiting the flexibility of caregivers.10

  • China’s former “one-child policy” led married couples to maintain the sole care of four elderly parents. This care became more likely the responsibility of women than of men.11

  • As of January 1, 2016, China's "two-child policy" allows all married couples to have two children.12
     

Marriage and Family Are Undergoing Cultural Changes13

Women are marrying later, with the mean average for women at 24 years old in 2013, a slight increase from 23 years old in 2000.14

  • A 2017 study revealed that 40.1% of working women in China were hesitant to have children.15
    • Over half (63.4%) of women worried that having children would significantly impact their career development.16

Many advantaged women and less-advantaged men now remain single due to traditional beliefs that men should be more educated than their wives.17

  • Almost 50% of highly educated women (with post-secondary education) were unmarried in 2010, 10.1% higher than the percentage of unmarried and highly educated men.18

The divorce rate has been on the rise, from 1.1% in 2003 to 3.0% in 2016 (an increase of over 170%).19
 

The Majority of Mothers in China Work20

72% of mothers between 25 and 34 years of age with children under the age of six were employed in 2010.21

  • A barrier for working women created by China’s economic reforms is the reduction of government, public, and employer childcare options.22


Education

More Women Are College Educated Than Before23

Representation of women in higher education has steadily increased in the past decade.24

  • In 2014, over half (51.1%) of enrolled students in tertiary (post-secondary) education25 were women.26

  • Women represented just over half (51.1%) of tertiary graduates in 2014.27


Labor Force

In 2016, the majority (70.8%) of China’s population aged 15 years and older participated in the labor force.28

  • 63.3% of women were in the labor force compared to 77.9% of men.29
     

A Gender Pay Gap Persists in China’s Labor Force30

Women earn on average 35% less than men for doing similar work, ranking in the bottom third of the Global Gender Gap Index (ranked 99th out of 144 countries).31

  • Women’s average annual income lags behind men’s. In 2010, women earned just over two-thirds (67.3%) of men’s income in urban areas, and just over half (56%) of men’s income in rural areas.32
     
Working Norms and Policies Disadvantage Women33

Maternity leave is at least 98 days,34 and 100% of wages for maternity leave are paid by the employer and government combined.35

  • Employers sometimes use the long maternity leave to deny women employment. The United Nations Human Rights Council reports discrimination practices in China based on maternity, with employers choosing to hire only women who already have children, denying pregnant women statutory leave, or dismissing women during pregnancy.36

In a 2010 survey, more than 72% of women stated they were not hired or promoted due to gender discrimination.37

  • Over 75% believed they were “being dismissed” due to marriage or childbirth.38

Mandatory retirement ages in China differ between women and men.39

  • Women in blue-collar occupations (e.g., factory workers) are often required to retire at age 50, and women in white-collar occupations (e.g., professionals, managers) at age 55. Special categories of women (e.g., college professor) can work until age 60.40

  • The mandatory retirement age for urban employed men is 60.41

China’s early retirement age for women contributes to missed career development and advancement opportunities, reduced pensions, and fewer social security benefits for female retirees.42


Leadership

Despite High Labor Force Participation, There Are Few Women in Leadership Roles43

In 2016, women were just 17% of all legislators, senior officials, and managers in China.44

  • Only 17.5% of firms in China have women as top managers.45

In 2015, women represented 9.2% of boards46 and 22% of CFOs47 of companies in China.

  • In 2013, only 3.2% of CEOs of Chinese companies were women.48
     
Women Have Low Representation in Political Offices49

Less than one-quarter (24.2%) of all positions in China’s single-house parliament are held by women, placing it 72nd out of 193 countries.50

  • 12% of ministerial positions in China’s government were held by women in 2016.51

  • Out of the past 50 years, there were only four with a female head of state.52

No woman has ever been among the nine members of China’s top level of decision-making, the Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party.53


Additional Resources

Catalyst, Expanding Work-Life Perspectives: Talent Management in China (2012).

Catalyst, Quick Take: Statistical Overview of Women in the Workforce.

Human Rights Watch, "China—Events of 2016," World Report 2017 (2017).

Qingwen Xu and Wing Kwan Anselm Lam, China Public Policy (The Sloan Center on Aging & Work, January 2010).

US Congressional-Executive Commission on China, “Status of Women,” 2016 Annual Report (2016).

 

How to cite this product: Catalyst, Quick Take: Women in the Workforce: China (August 31, 2017).

  • 1. CIA, "China, People and Society," The World Factbook (2017).
  • 2. CIA, "Country Comparison: Population," The World Factbook (2017).
  • 3. CIA, "China, People and Society," The World Factbook (2017).
  • 4. Jane Golley and Rod Tyers, “China’s Gender Imbalance and Its Economic Performance,” The China Story (Australian Centre on China in the World, 2012).
  • 5. Kenneth Rapoza, “China’s Aging Population Becoming More of a Problem,” Forbes, February 21, 2017.
  • 6. CIA, “China, People and Society,” The World Factbook (2017); National Bureau of Statistics in China, Department of Social, Science and Technology, and Cultural Statistics, Women and Men in China – Facts and Figures 2012 (2014): p. 13.
  • 7. CIA, “China, People and Society,” The World Factbook (2017).
  • 8. United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, “Percentage of Population by Broad Age Group, Both Sexes (Per 100 Total Population), Age 65+,” World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision (2017).
  • 9. CIA, “China, People and Society,” The World Factbook (2017).
  • 10. Sarah Cook and Xiao-yuan Dong, “Harsh Choices: Chinese Women’s Paid Work and Unpaid Care Responsibilities under Economic Reform,” Development and Change, vol. 42, no. 4 (2011): p. 947–965.
  • 11. Lanyan Chen and Hilary Standing, “Gender Equity in Transitional China’s Healthcare Policy Reforms,” Feminist Economics, vol. 13, no. 3-4 (2007): p. 189-212.
  • 12. Law Library of Congress, “China: Two Child Policy Becomes Law,” Global Legal Monitor (January 8, 2016).
  • 13. National Bureau of Statistics in China, Department of Social, Science and Technology, and Cultural Statistics, Women and Men in China – Facts and Figures 2012 (2014): p. 20.
  • 14. United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, “Singulate Mean Age at Marriage (SMAM),” World Marriage Data 2015 (2015).
  • 15. “Zhaopin Report Found China’s Working Women Less Keen on Childbearing,” Zhaopin Limited press release, May 11, 2017.
  • 16. “Zhaopin Report Found China’s Working Women Less Keen on Childbearing,” Zhaopin Limited press release, May 11, 2017.
  • 17. National Bureau of Statistics in China, Department of Social, Science and Technology, and Cultural Statistics, Women and Men in China – Facts and Figures 2012 (2014): p. 20.
  • 18. National Bureau of Statistics in China, Department of Social, Science and Technology, and Cultural Statistics, Women and Men in China – Facts and Figures 2012 (2014): p. 20.
  • 19. Ministry of Civil Affairs of the People’s Republic of China, “Table 14: Marriage and Divorce,” 2010 Social Services Development Statistics Bulletin (June 16, 2011); Ministry of Civil Affairs of the People’s Republic of China, “Table 14: Marriage Rate and Divorce Rate,” 2016 Social Services Development Statistics Bulletin (August 3, 2017).
  • 20. All-China Women’s Federation and National Bureau of Statistics in China, Report on Major Results of the Third Wave Survey on The Social Status of Women in China (October 21, 2011).
  • 21. All-China Women’s Federation and National Bureau of Statistics in China, Report on Major Results of the Third Wave Survey on The Social Status of Women in China (October 21, 2011).
  • 22. Sarah Cook and Xiao-yuan Dong, “Harsh Choices: Chinese Women’s Paid Work and Unpaid Care Responsibilities under Economic Reform,” Development and Change, vol. 42, no. 4 (2011): p. 947–965.
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  • 25. Tertiary education describes “all post-secondary education, including but not limited to universities. In recent years, a diverse and growing set of public and private tertiary institutions in every country—colleges, technical training institutes, community colleges, nursing schools, research laboratories, centers of excellence, distance learning centers, and many more—form a network of institutions that prepare students for application of knowledge at an advanced level.” The World Bank, “Higher Education: Context,” The World Bank Topics A-Z: Tertiary Education (December 21, 2015).
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